Skip Navigation LinksPurdue Agriculture > Extension > Help the Hellbender > Publications
Find Help the Hellbender on Twitter
Find Help the Hellbender on Facebook
What are you doing to help the hellbenders?

 Hellbender Publications

Albanese, B., J. B. Jensen, and S. D. Unger. 2011. Occurrence of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in the Coosawattee River system (Mobile River Basin), Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 9(4):181-184.

 

Avery, A. 2005. Rachel Carson syndrome: jumping to pesticide conclusions in the global frog crisis. Hudson Institute.

 

Barton, B. S. 1812. A memoir concerning an animal of the class of reptilia, and amphibia, which is known, in the United States, by the name of alligator and hell-bender. Private printing. Griggs & Dickinson, Printers. 26 pp.

 

Beane, J. 2012. Hell Bent. Wildlife in North Carolina 19-22.

 

Beffa, D. A. 1976. Responses of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis to different oxygen concentrations, temperatures and photoperiod. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 37 pp.

 

Blais, D. P. 1996. Movement, home range, and other aspects of the biology of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis): a radio telemetry study. M. S. Thesis, St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York. 63 pp.

 

Bodinof, C. M. 2010. Translocation and conservation of hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Missouri. M. S. Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. 152 pp.

 

Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, M. C. Duncan, J. Beringer, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2011. Historic occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations from Missouri. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:1-7.

 

Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, R. A. Gitzen, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Postrelease movements of captive-reared Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Herpetologica 68(2):160-173.

 

Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Habitat attributes associated with short-term settlement of Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) salamanders following translocation to the wild. Freshwater Biology 57:178-192.

 

Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, T. Mong, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Survival and body condition of captive-reared juvenile Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) following translocation to the wild. Copeia 2012(1):150-159.

 

Bogo, J. 2009. Fighting the current. National Parks 83(2):22-23.

 

Bothner, R. C., and J. A. Gottlieb. 1991. A study of the New York state populations of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Daudin). Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science 17:41-54.

 

Boutilier, R. G., D. G. McDonald, and D. P. Toews. 1980. The effects of enforced activity on ventilation, circulation and blood acid-base balance in the aquatic gill-less urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis; a comparison with the semi-terrestrial anuran, Bufo marinus. Journal of Experimental Biology 84:289–302.

 

Boutilier, R. G., and D. P. Toews. 1981a. Respiratory, circulatory and acid-base adjustments to hypercapnia in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin-breathing urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respiration Physiology 46:177–192.

 

Boutilier, R. G., and D. P. Toews. 1981b. Respiratory properties of blood in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin-breathing urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respiration Physiology 46:161–176.

 

Branch, H. E. 1935. A laboratory manual of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Daudin. Vantage Press, Wichita, 79 pp.

 

Bredehoeft, K. E. 2010. A re-evaluation of the Pleistocene hellbender, Cryptobranchus guildayi, and an overview of Cryptobranchus remains from caves in the Potomac River region. M. S. Thesis, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee. 82 pp.

 

Briggler, J. T., and Y. Huang. 2006. Evaluation of health conditions, reproductive hormones, and mercury in adult hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.

 

Briggler, J. T. 2007. Hellbender recovery actions in Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. Science Note 2(15).

 

Briggler, J., J. Utrup, C. Davidson, J. Humphries, J. Groves, T. Johnson, J. Ettling, M. Wanner, K. Traylor-Holzer, D. Reed, V. Lindgren, and O. Byers (eds.). 2007. Hellbender population and habitat viability assessment. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 46 pp.

 

Browne, R. K., H. Li, Z. Wang, P. M. Hime, A. McMillan, M. Wu, R. Diaz, Z. Hongxing, D. McGinnity, and J. T. Briggler. 2012. The giant salamanders (Cryptobranchidae): part A. palaeontology, phylogeny, genetics, and morphology. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(4):17-29.

 

Burgmeier, N. G. 2010. Population estimation, spatial ecology, and health status of eastern hellbenders in Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 76 pp.

 

Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2010. The bender board: a new design for the restraint and measurement of hellbenders. Herpetological Review 41(3):319-320.

 

Burgmeier, N. G., T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Spatial ecology of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana. Herpetologica 67(2):135-145.

 

Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, J. L. Meyer, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Health and habitat quality assessment for the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(4):836-848.

 

Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Population status of eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana. Journal of Herpetology 45(2):195-201.

 

Caliando, J. J., Jr. 1975. The effects of the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, on blood glucose and liver glycogen in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 25 pp.

 

Canada, B., and A. F. Scott. 2003. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. Herpetological Review 34(3):255-256.

 

Chudyk, S., A.McMillan, and C. Lange. 2014.  Using the eastern hellbender salamander in a high school genetics and ecological conservation activity. The American Biology Teacher 76:338-344.

 

Coatney, C. E., Jr. 1982. Home range and nocturnal activity of the Ozark hellbender. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 55 pp.

 

Collins, J. T. 1981. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender) longevity. Herpetological Review 12(2):69.

 

Conservation Research Reports. 2008. Non-native fishes threatening hellbenders in Missouri. Iguana 15(3):177

 

Crane, A. L., and A. Mathis. 2011. Predator-recognition training: a conservation strategy to increase postrelease survival of hellbenders in head-starting programs. Zoo Biology 30:611-622.

 

Crowhurst, R. S., K. M. Faries, J. Collantes, J. T. Briggler, J. B. Koppelman, and L. S. Eggert. 2011. Genetic relationships of hellbenders in the Ozark highlands of Missouri and conservation implications for the Ozark subspecies (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Conservation Genetics 12:637-646.

 

Davis, A. K., and W. A. Hopkins. 2012. Widespread trypanosome infections in a population of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Virginia, USA. Parasitology Research. 4 pp.

 

Davis, A.K., and T.M. Floyd. 2013. Evaluating levels of genotoxic stress in eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) using the erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Comparitive Clinical Pathology DOI 10.1007/s00580-013-1761-1.

 

Deban, S. M., and J. C. O’Reilly. 2005. The ontogeny of feeding kinematics in a giant salamander Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: does current function or phylogenetic relatedness predict the scaling patterns of movement? Zoology 108:155-167.

 

Dierenfeld, E. S., K. J. McGraw, K. Fritsche, J. T. Briggler, and J. Ettling. 2009. Nutrient composition of whole crayfish (Orconectes and Procambarus species) consumed by hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Review 40(3):324-330.

 

Dundee, H. A., and D. S. Dundee. 1965. Observations on the systematics and ecology of Cryptobranchus from the Ozark Plateaus of Missouri and Arkansas. Copeia 1965(3):369-370.

 

Ettling, J.A., M.D. Wanner, C.D. Schuette, S.L. Armstrong, A.S. Pedigo, and J.T. Briggler. 2013. Captive reproduction and husbandry of adult Ozark Hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. Herpetological Review 44:605-610.

 

Feist, S.M., J.T. Briggler, J.B. Koppelman, and L.S. Eggert. 2014. Within-river gene flow in the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and implications for restorative release. Conserv Genet DOI 10.1007/s10592-014-0591-2.

 

Firschein, I. L. 1951. The range of Cryptobranchus bishopi and remarks on the distribution of the genus Cryptobranchus. American Midland Naturalist 45(2):455-459.

 

Fitch, F. W., Jr. 1947. A record Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia 1947(3):210.

 

Floyd, T.M., T.S.M. Stratmann, G.J. Brown, III, and C.S. Pfaff. 2013. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. Terrestrial Movement. Herpetological Review 44:651.

 

Fobes, T. M. 1995. Habitat analysis of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, in Missouri. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 38 pp.

 

Foster, R. L, A. M. McMillan, and K. J. Roblee. 2009. Population status of hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in the Allegheny River drainage of New York State. Journal of Herpetology 43(4):579-588.

 

Furniss, L. L. 2003. Conservation assessment for Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman). USDA Forest Service, Rolla, Missouri.

 

Gall, B. G. 2008. Predator-prey interactions between hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis and C. A. bishopi) and native and nonnative fishes. M.S. Thesis, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 85 pp.

 

Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2010. Innate predator recognition and the problem of introduced trout. Ethology 116(2010):47-58.

 

Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2010. Response of native and introduced fishes to presumed antipredator secretions of Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Behaviour 147:1769-1789.

 

Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2011. Ontogenetic shift in response to amphibian alarm cues by banded sculpins (Cottus carolinae). Copeia 2011(1):5-8.

 

Gao, K., and N. H. Shubin. 2003. Earliest known crown-group salamanders. Nature 422:424-428.

 

Gates, J. E. 1983. The distribution and status of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Maryland: I. The distribution and status of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Maryland. II. Movement patterns of translocated Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in a Maryland stream. University of Maryland, Frostburg, Maryland.

 

Gates, J. E., C. H. Hocutt, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1984. The status of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Maryland. University of Maryland, Frostburg, Maryland.

 

Gates, J. E., C. H. Hocutt, J. R. Stauffer, Jr., and G. J. Taylor. 1985. The distribution and status of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Maryland. Herp Review 16(1):17-18.

Gates, J. E., R. H. Stouffer, Jr., J. R. Stauffer, Jr., and C. H. Hocutt. 1985. Dispersal patterns of translocated Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in a Maryland stream. Journal of Herpetology 19(3):436-438.

 

Gonynor, J. L., M. J. Yabsley, and J. B. Jensen. 2011. A preliminary survey of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure in hellbenders from a stream in Georgia, USA. Herpetological Review 42(1):58-59.

 

Gottlieb, J. A. 1991. A population study of the hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in the Allegheny River drainage of New York State. M. S. Thesis. St. Bonaventure University, Olean, New York. 54 pp.

 

Graham, S. P., E. C. Soehren, G. R. Cline, C. M. Schmidt, W. B. Sutton, J. R. Rayburn, S. H. Stiles, and J. A. Stiles. 2011. Conservation status of hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Alabama, USA. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(2):242-249.

 

Green, N. B. 1933. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in West Virginia. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, Elkins, West Virginia. 7:28-30.

 

Greven, H., and G. Clemen. 2009. Early tooth transformation in the paedomorphic hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin, 1803) (Amphibia: Urodela). Vertebrate Zoology 59(1):71-79.

 

Groves, J. D. 2012. eDNA & the search for hellbenders. Alive 12-13.

 

Groves, J. D., and L. A. Williams. 2011. In search of the hellbender in North Carolina. Connect 12-15.

 

Groves, J.D., and L.A. Williams. 2014. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis - cannibalism. Herpetological Review 45:108-109.

 

Guimond, R. W., and V. H. Hutchinson. 1973. Aquatic respiration: an unusual strategy in the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Daudin). Science 182(4118):1263-1265.

 

Harlan, R. A., and R. F. Wilkinson. 1981. The effects of progressive hypoxia and rocking activity on blood oxygen tension for hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Journal of Herpetology 15(4):383-387.

 

Harshbarger, J. C., and S. E. Trauth. 2002. Squamous cell carcinoma upgrade of the epidermal papilloma reported in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Pp. 43–48. In: R.G. McKinnell and D.L. Carlson (eds.). Proceeding of the Sixth International Symposium on the Pathology of Reptiles and Amphibians, Saint Paul, Minnesota.

 

Hasegawa, H., and Y. Ikeda. 2003. Helminths from the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Urodela: Cryptobranchidae), in Missouri, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 70(1):60–65.

 

Hecht-Kardasz, K. A., M. A. Nickerson, M. Freake, and P. Colclough. 2012. Population structure of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in a Great Smoky Mountains stream. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(4):227-241.

 

Hiler, W. R., B. A. Wheeler, and S. E. Trauth. 2005. Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in Arkansas: a comparison between two rivers with a historical perspective. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Science 59:88–94.

 

Hillis, R. E., and E. D. Bellis. 1971. Some aspects of the ecology of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in a Pennsylvania stream. Journal of Herpetology 5(3/4):121-126.

 

Hopkins, W. A., and S. E. DuRant. 2011. Innate immunity and stress physiology of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) from two stream reaches with differing habitat quality. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174(2011):107-115.

 

Hopkins, W.A., W.E. Moser, D.W. Garst, D.J. Richardson, C.I. Hammond, and E.A Lazo-Wasem. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus allenganiensis). ZooKeys 378:83-101.

 

Horchler, D. C. 2010. Long-term growth and monitoring of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis) in eastern West Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 48 pp.

 

Huang, C., Y. Xu, J.T. Briggler, M. McKee, P. Nam, and Y. Huang. 2010. Heavy metals, hematology, plasma chemistry, and parasites in adult hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(5):1132-1137.

 

Humphries, W. J., and T. K. Pauley. 2000. Seasonal changes in nocturnal activity of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in West Virginia. Journal of Herpetology 34(4):604-607.

 

Humphries, W. J., and T. K. Pauley. 2005. Life history of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in a West Virginia stream. American Midland Naturalist 154:135-142.

 

Humphries, W. J. 2007. Diurnal seasonal activity of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender) in North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 6(1):135-140.

 

Hutchison, V. H., G. Engbretson, and D. Turney. 1973. Thermal acclimation and tolerance in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia 1973(4):805-807.

 

Hutchison, V. H., and L. G. Hill. 1976. Thermal selection in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, and the mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus. Herpetologica 32(3):327–331.

 

Ingersol, C. A. 1982. Seasonal reproductive changes in Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 72 pp.

 

Ingersol, C. A., R. F. Wilkinson, C. L. Peterson, and R. H. Ingersol. 1991. Histology of the reproductive organs of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Missouri. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(1):60-66.

 

Irwin, K. 2008. Ozark hellbender long-term monitoring SWG project. Final Report. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Benton, Arkansas.

 

Jackson, T., and A. Boyntan. 1994. Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Division of Conservation Education, N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission.

 

Jerrett, D. P., and C. E. Mays. 1973. Comparative hematology of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Missouri. Copeia 1973(2):331–337.

 

Johnson, G. M., and D. J. Klemm. 1977. A new species of leech, Batracobdella cryptobranchii n. sp. (Annelida: Hirudinea), parasitic on the Ozark hellbender. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 96(3):327–331.

 

Johnson, J. R., K. M. Faries, J. J. Rabenold, R. S. Crowhurst, J. T. Briggler, J. B. Koppelman, and L. S. Eggert. 2009. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for studies of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Conservation Genetics (Online First): DOI 10.1007/s10592-009-9819-z.

 

Johnson, T. R., and J. T. Briggler. 2004. The hellbender. Conservation Commission of the State of Missouri.

 

Keitzer, S. C. 2007. Habitat preferences of the eastern hellbender in West Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 64 pp.

 

Keitzer, S.C., T.K. Pauley, and C.L. Burcher. 2013. Stream characteristics associated with site occupancy by the eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in southern West Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 20:666-677.

 

Kern, W. H., Jr. 1984. The hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN. 48 pp.

 

Kern, W. H., Jr. 1986. The range of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science 95:520-521.

 

Lammers, B., D. Bemis, P. Colclough, and M. J. Souza. 2012. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. isolated from Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis in eastern Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 11(1):59-64.

 

Lawson, C. R. 2012. Land use and eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations in three Hiwassee River tributary watersheds. M.S. Thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina. 55 pp.

 

Leas, W. 2007. Possible effects of climate change on some of Ohio’s endangered animals. Proceedings of the 2007 Environmental Studies Seminar at Xavier University pp. 24-26.

 

Lipps, G. and M. Sisson. 2008. Status assessment and conservation of the eastern hellbender. Annual Research Highlights pp. 51.

 

Lorenze Elwood, J. R., and D. Cundall. 1994. Morphology and behavior of the feeding apparatus in Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Amphibia: Caudata). Journal of Morphology 220: 47-70.

 

Makowsky, R. 2004. Natural history and sexual dimorphism of the eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 69 pp.

 

Makowsky, R., L. A. Wilson, and T. K. Pauley. 2010. Sexual dimorphism in the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5(1):44-48.

 

Mathis, A., and A. Crane. 2009. Saving a giant salamander. IRCF Reptiles and Amphibians 16(1):18-23.

 

May, T. W., M. J. Walther, W. G. Brumbaugh, J. T. Briggler, Y. Huang, and M. J. McKee. 2007. Concentration of elements in hellbender blood and fish fillets from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation monitoring programs. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1229 18 pp.

 

Mayasich, J., D. Grandmaison, and C. Phillips. 2003. Conservation assessment for eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) Daudin. U.S. Forest Service Eastern Region, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

 

Mayasich, J., D. Grandmaison, and C. Phillips. 2003. Eastern hellbender status assessment report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ft. Snelling, Minnesota, NRRI/TR-2003/09.

 

Merkle, D. A., S. I. Guttman, and M. A. Nickerson. 1977. Genetic uniformity throughout the range of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia 1977(3):549-553.

 

Meszoely, C. 1966. North American fossil cryptobranchid salamanders. American Midland Naturalist 75(2):495-515.

 

Miller, B. T., and J. L. Miller. 1992. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (eastern hellbender). Herpetological Review 23(1):23.

 

Miller, B. T., and J. L. Miller. 2005. Prevalence of physical abnormalities in eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations of middle Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 4(3):513-520.  

 

Moalli, R., R. S. Meyers, G. R. Ultsch, and D. C. Jackson. 1981. Acid-base balance and temperature in a predominantly skin-breathing salamander Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respiration Physiology 43:1–11.

 

Moser, W. E., D. J. Richardson, B. A. Wheeler, K. J. Irwin, B. A. Daniels, S. E. Trauth, and D. J. Klemm. 2008. Placobdella cryptobranchii (Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) on Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi (Ozark hellbender) in Arkansas and Missouri. Comparative Parasitology 75(1):98-101.

 

Moser, W. E., J. T. Briggler, D. J. Richardson, C. D. Schuette, C. I. Hammond, W. A. Hopkins, and E. A. Lazo-Wasem. 2013. Redescription and molecular characterization of Placobdella cryptobranchii (Johnson & Klemm, 1977) (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida). ZooKeys 338:1-10.

 

Mullendore, N., A.S. Mase, K. Mulvaney, R. Perry-Hill, A. Reimer, L. Behbehani, R.N. Williams, and L.S. Prokopy. Conserving the eastern hellbender salamander. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 19:166-178.

 

Netting, M. G. 1929. The food of the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin). Copeia 1929(170):23-24.

 

Nickerson, C. A., C. M. Ott, S. L. Castro, V. M. Garcia, T. C. Molina, J. T. Briggler, A. L. Pitt, J. J. Tavano, J. K. Byram, J. Barrila, and M. A. Nickerson. 2011. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark hellbender salamanders. PLoS ONE 6(12):e28906. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028906.

 

Nickerson, M. A., and C. E. Mays. 1973. A study of the Ozark hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. Ecology 54(5):1164-1165.

 

Nickerson, M. A., and C. E. Mays. 1973. The hellbenders: North American "giant salamanders."  Milwaukee Pulblic Museum Special Publications in Biology and Geology No.1 vii+1-106.

 

Nickerson, M. A. 1980. Return of captive Ozark hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to site of capture. Copeia 1980(3):536-537.

 

Nickerson, M. A., R. E. Ashton, Jr., and A. L. Braswell. 1983. Lampreys in the diet of hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin), and the neuse river waterdog Necturus lewisi (Brimley). Herpetological Review 14(1):10.

 

Nickerson, M. A., and M. D. Tohulka. 1986. The nests and nest site selection by Ozark hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 89(1/2):66-69.

 

Nickerson, M. A., K. L. Krysko, and R. D. Owen. 2002. Ecological status of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) salamanders in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 118(1):27-34.

 

Nickerson, M. A., and K. L. Krysko. 2003. Surveying for hellbender salamanders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin): a review and critique. Applied Herpetology 1:37-44.

 

Nickerson, M. A., K. L. Krysko, and R. D. Owen. 2003. Habitat differences affecting age class distributions of the hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Southeastern Naturalist 2(4):619–629.

 

Nickerson, M. A., and J. T. Briggler. 2007. Harvesting as a factor in population decline of a long-lived salamander; the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman. Applied Herpetology 4:207-216.

 

Noeske, T. A., and M. A. Nickerson. 1979. Diel activity rhythms in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Caudata: Crytobranchidae). Copeia 1979(1):92-95.

 

O'Brien, S. Hellbender anesthesia. 1 pp.

 

Olson, Z. H., J. T. Briggler, and R. N. Williams. 2012. An eDNA approach to detect eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis) using samples of water. Wildlife Research 39:629-636.

 

Olson, Z. H., N. G. Burgmeier, P. A. Zollner, and R. N. Williams. 2013. Survival estimates for adult eastern hellbenders and their utility for conservation. Journal of Herpetology 47(1):71-74.

 

Peterson, C. L., R. F. Wilkinson, Jr., M. S. Topping, and D. E. Metter. 1983. Age and growth of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Copeia 1983(1):225-231.

 

Peterson, C. L. 1985. Comparative demography of four populations of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in the Ozarks. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. 158 pp. 

 

Peterson, C. L., M. S. Topping, R. F. Wilkinson, Jr., and C. A. Taber. 1985. Examination of long-term growth of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis predicted by linear regression methods. Copeia 1985(2):492-496.

 

Peterson, C. L. 1987. Movement and catchability of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Journal of Herpetology 21(3):197-204.

 

Peterson, C. L. 1988. Breeding activities of the hellbender in Missouri. Herpetological Review 19(2):28-29.

 

Peterson, C. L., D. E. Metter, B. T. Miller, R. F. Wilkinson, and M. S. Topping. 1988. Demography of the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in the Ozarks. American Midland Naturalist 119(2):291-303.

 

Peterson, C. L., C. A. Ingersol, and R. F. Wilkinson. 1989. Winter breeding of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi in Arkansas. Copeia 1989(4):1031-1035.

 

Peterson, C. L., J. W. Reed, and R. F. Wilkinson. 1989. Seasonal food habits of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Caudata: Cryptobranchidae). The Southwestern Naturalist 34(3):438-441.

 

Peterson, C. L., and R. F. Wilkinson. 1996. Home range size of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Missouri. Herpetological Review 27(3):126-127.

 

Pfingsten, R. A. 1990. The status and distribution of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Ohio. Herpetological Review 21(3):48-51.

 

Phillips, C. A., and W. J. Humphries. 2005. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin,1803). Pp 648-651 In: Michael Lanoo, ed. Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States species. University of California Press. 1094 pp.

 

Pitt, A. L., and M. A. Nickerson. 2006. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender salamanders) larval diet. Herpetological Review 37(1):69.

 

Pope, M. R. 2002. Predicting population dynamics for the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: using population viability analysis (PVA) as a guide for conservation. M. S. Thesis, Murray State Universtiy, Murray, Kentucky. 80 pp.

 

Prosen, E. 1999. Status of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Missouri: a comparison of past and present populations. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 39 pp.

 

 

Pugh, M. W., J. D. Groves, L. A. Williams, and M. M. Gangloff.  2013. A previously undocumented locality of Eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in the Elk River, Carter Co., TN.   Southeastern Naturalist 12(1):137-142.

 

Putnam, J. L., and J. B. Parkerson, Jr. 1985. Anatomy of the heart of the amphibia II. Crytobranchus alleganiensis. Herpetologica 41(3):287–298.

 

Quinn, S. A. 2009. Factors influencing distribution of the eastern hellbender in the northern segment of its range. M.S. Thesis, State University of New York, Syracuse, New York. 49 pp.

 

Reed, S. G. 1994. Reproductive endocrinology of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 41 pp.

 

Reese, A. M. 1903. The habits of the giant salamander. The Popular Science Monthly 1903:525-533.

 

Reese, A. M. 1904. The sexual elements of the giant sala-mander, Cryptobranchus allegheniensis. Biological Bulletin 6(5):220-223.

 

Reese, A. M. 1906. Anatomy of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis. The American Naturalist 40(472):287-326.

 

Reese, A. M. 1906. Observations on the reactions of Cryptobranchus and Necturus to light and heat. Biological Bulletin 11(2):93-99.

 

Reimer, A., et al. 2013.  Impact of information and familiarity on public attitudes toward the hellbender. Animal Conservation

 

Rossell, Jr., C. R., P. McNeal, D. P. Gillette, L. A. Williams, S. C. Patch, and A. G. Krebs.  2013.  Attributes of shelters selected by Eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis) in the French Broad River Basin of North Carolina.  Journal of Herpetology 47(1):66-70.

 

Routman, E. J. 1993. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, a salamander with extremely low allozyme diversity. Copeia 1993(2):407-416.

 

Routman, E. J. 1994. Parsimony, molecular evolution, and biogeography: the case of the North American giant salamander. Evolution 48(6):1799-1809.

 

Sabatino, S. J. 2005. Biogeography and evolutionary history of the hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). M. S. Thesis, San Francisco State University, San Franciso, California. 36 pp.

 

Sabatino, S. J., and E. J. Routman. 2008. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Conservation Genetics 10:1235-1246.

 

Shaffer, H. B., and F. Breden. 1989. The relationship between allozyme variation and life history: non-transforming salamanders are less variable. Copeia 1989(4):1016-1023.

 

Smith, B. G. 1906. Preliminary report on the embryology of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis. Biological Bulletin 11(3):146-164.

 

Smith, B. G. 1907. The life history and habits of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis. Biological Bulletin 13(1):5-39.

 

Smith, B. G. 1912. The embryology of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis, including comparisons with some other vertebrates I. Introduction; the history of the egg before cleavage. Journal of Morphology 23(1):61-157.

 

Smith, B. G. 1912. The embryology of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis, including comparisons with some other vertebrates II. General embryonic and larval development, with special reference to external features. Journal of Morhphology 23(3):455-579.

 

Smith, B. G. 1914. An experimental study of concrescence in the embryo of Crytobranchus allegheniensis. Biological Bulletin 26(5):245-261.

 

Smith, B. G. 1919. The individuality of the germ-nuclei during the cleavage of the egg of Cryptobranchus allegheniensis. Biological Bulletin 37(4):246-286.

 

Smith, L. Hellbender hunting in Georgia. Pp 13-14.

 

Solis, M. E., J. M. Bandeff, and Y. Huang. 2007. Hematology and serum chemistry of Ozark and eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetologica 63(3):285-292.

 

Solis, M. E., C. C. Liu, P. Nam, D. K. Niyogi, J. M. Bandeff, and Y. Huang. 2007. Occurrence of organic chemicals in two rivers inhabited by Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:426-434.

 

Soule, N., and A. J. Lindberg. 1994. The use of leverage to facilitate the search for the hellbender. Herpetological Review 25(1):16.

 

Souza, M. J., M. J. Gray, P. Colclough, and D. L. Miller. 2012. Prevalence of infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus in eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in eastern Tennessee. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(3)560-566.

 

Stein, H. A., and P. W. Smith. 1959. The hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in Illinois. Copeia 1959(2):178-179.

 

Stone, J. W. 1971. The effects of hypertonic media on various serum and urine constituents of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State College, Springfield, Missouri. 67 pp.

 

Stouffer, R. H. Jr., J. E. Gates, C. H. Hocutt, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1983. Surgical implantation of a transmitter package for radio-tracking endangered hellbenders. Wildlife Society Bulletin 11(4):384-386.

 

Swanson, P. L. 1948. Note on the amphibians of Venango County, Pennsylvania. American Midland Naturalist 40(2):362-371.

 

Taber, C. A., R. F. Wilkinson, Jr., and M. S. Topping. 1975. Age and growth of hellbenders in the Niangua River, Missouri. Copeia 1975(4):633-639.

 

Tonione, M. A. 2009. Microsatellite variation and phylogeography of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. 32 pp.

 

Tonione, M., J. R. Johnson, and E. J. Routman. 2010. Microsatellite analysis supports mitochondrial phylogeography of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Genetica 139:209-219.

 

Topping, M. S. and C. A. Ingersol. 1981. Fecundity in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia 1981(4):873-876.

 

Trauth, S. E., J. D. Wilhide, and P. Daniel. 1992. Status of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus bishopi (Urodela: Cryptobranchidae), in the Spring River, Fulton Country, Arkansas. Proceedings Arkansas Academy of Science 46:83-86.

 

Trauth, S. E., J. D. Wilhide, and P. Daniel. 1993. The Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus bishopi, in Arkansas: distributional survey for 1992. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 28(4):81-85.

 

Trauth, S. E., J. C. Harshbarger, and P. Daniel. 2002. Epidermal papilloma in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) from the Spring River of northern Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 56:190-197.

 

Ultsch, G. R., and J. T. Duke. 1990. Gas exchange and habitat selection in the aquatic salamanders Necturus maculosus and Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Oecologia 83:250-258.

 

Unger, S. D., J. A. Fike, T. Sutton, O. E. Rhodes, Jr., and R. N. Williams. 2010. Isolation and development of 12 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis). Conservation Genetics Resources 2:89-91.  

 

Unger, S. D., N. G. Burgmeier, and R. N. Williams. 2012. Genetic markers reveal high PIT tag retention rates in giant salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Amphibia-Reptilia 33:313-317.

 

Unger, S. D., O. E. Rhodes, Jr., T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2013. Population genetics of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) across multiple spatial scales. PLOS ONE 8(10):1-14.

 

Unger, S. D., T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2013. Projected population persistence of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis). Journal for Nature Conservation 21:423-432.

 

Wheeler, B. A. 1999. Status of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi): a long-term assessment. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 32 pp.

 

Wheeler, B. A., M. L. McCallum, and S. E. Trauth. 2002. Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 56:250-252.

 

Wheeler, B. A., and S. Trauth. 2002. Distributional survey of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi: final report for field season 2001. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 28 pp.

 

Wheeler, B. A., E. Prosen, A. Mathis, and R. F. Wilkinson. 2003. Population declines of a long-lived salamander: a 20 + -year study of hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Biological Conservation 109:151-156.

 

Wiggs, J. N. 1976. Food habits, starvation and growth in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 32 pp.

 

Wikramanayake, E. D., and G. L. Dryden. 1985. Body length of male Cryptobranchus alleganiensis at sexual maturity. Bulletin Maryland Herpetological Society pp 76-79.

 

Williams, R. D., J. E. Gates, and C. H. Hocutt. 1981. An evaluation of known potential sampling techniques for hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Journal of Herpetology 15(1):23-27.

 

Williams, R. D., J. E. Gates, C. H. Hocutt, and G. J. Taylor. 1981. A nongame species in need of management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 9(2):94-100.